Hallan en Tlaxcala posible osamenta de Ometochtli, dios del pulque

JUDITH AMADOR TELLO/PROCESO

MÉXICO, DF (apro).- Como resultado de los trabajos de exploración en la zona arqueológica de Zultépec-Tecoaque en Tlaxcala, investigadores encontraron dentro de un aljibe los restos óseos de un personaje de alta jerarquía que se presume podría ser Ometochtli, deidad del pulque.

El Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH) reportó el hallazgo y lo calificó de “inusual” por ser “el primero donde se encuentra una osamenta humana con una ofrenda compuesta por piezas de cerámica, fragmentos de huesos de niños y figurillas”.

Mediante un comunicado, explicó que los restos óseos se encontraron a una profundidad de seis metros con 20 centímetros, en un depósito mortuorio que data del periodo posclásico (1520 d.C.).

En el depósito, dijo, “destaca una piedra de color verdusco con tonos azules en forma de cilindro en cuya superficie está grabado el numeral o glifo ‘dos conejo’ de Ometochtli, el cual también aparece en un trono hecho en tezontle, tallado en una sola pieza y con restos de pintura azul, hallado en el mismo contexto. El cilindro mide 40 cm de alto por 20 de diámetro y el trono tiene 25 cm de alto, 20 de ancho y 30 de largo”.

En una conferencia de prensa realizada en el sitio –donde indígenas acolhuas capturaron y sacrificaron una caravana de 550 personas aliadas a Hernán Cortés–, el arqueólogo Enrique Martínez Vargas y la antropóloga Ana María Jarquín Pacheco, dieron cuenta del hallazgo:

En los aljibes, construidos para almacenar agua, los habitantes originarios ocultaban objetos de los españoles cautivos, tales como cerámica, figurillas, espuelas de caballo, clavos, huesos de animales y esculturas. Luego abandonaron el lugar intempestivamente al enterarse que Cortés había ordenado su destrucción.

Y es en uno de esos aljibes, el clasificado con el número 13, donde se encontraron los restos del personaje, un individuo joven de entre 25 y 28 años de edad, junto con fragmentos de huesos de niños como vértebras dorsales, costillas y cintura pélvica. Además había jarras, cajetes y cuencos para contener pulque con pigmentación azul, tonalidad muy apreciada por los mexicas.

Martínez Vargas señaló:

“La presencia de este personaje en el interior del aljibe, que representa el inframundo, es muy importante porque está acompañado del numeral que simboliza a la deidad del pulque, de la embriaguez y también de la fertilidad. Todos los elementos que conforman su ofrenda son prehispánicos y confirman que en Tecoaque se producía, almacenaba y salía el pulque hacia Tenochtitlan.”

El especialista describió que el personaje se encontró extendido a lo largo de la cámara mortuoria con la cabeza hacia el Este y los pies al Oeste:

“Son orientaciones mesoamericanas. Lo curioso es que en los entierros prehispánicos los individuos eran colocados en posición flexionada, que simboliza el renacimiento, y la posición extendida (bocarriba) significa que no va a renacer. Los restos óseos de los infantes rodeaban la piedra cilíndrica que tiene grabado el glifo ‘dos conejo’.”

Falta por determinar si el personaje falleció o fue sacrificado. Asimismo, el arqueólogo precisó que no se ha llegado al fondo del aljibe por lo cual podría haber más hallazgos vinculados al individuo.

Especialista en antropología física, Flores Hernández dijo que no se ha determinado el sexo y filiación étnica de los infantes cuyos restos acompañan al entierro principal. Se harán análisis de los restos para establecer su estatura, la morfología del cráneo y otras características.

Además, indicó la antropóloga, se indagará en fuentes históricas documentales, puesto que Ometochtli está mencionado en el Códice Borgia. De la misma forma, autores como Diego Durán y Fernando de Alva Ixtlilxóchitl aluden a él. Mientras que los informantes de fray Bernardino de Sahagún señalaron que el pulque se atribuía a los conejos.

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